Lesmana Rian Andhika



 Artikel penelitian ini menyajikan pemodelan kebijakan dalam risalah kebijakan, dan menentukan rekomendasi untuk pilihan kebijakan secara politis. Pemodelan dalam kebijakan dapat mengenali perubahan struktur kebijakan secara eksogen terhadap obyek kebijakan. Pemodelan dalam risalah kebijakan menginformasikan keputusan kebijakan yang didasari oleh fenomena masalah tertentu atau keseluruhan, dan kebutuhan untuk mempercepat perubahan mendasar menuju analisis kebijakan yang lebih dinamis. Meta-theory (the analysis of theory) digunakan untuk meninjau dan menganalisis pemodelan kebijakan yang terdapat pada risalah kebijakan dari beberapa temuan literatur yang relevan. Artikel penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pemodelan kebijakan mesti dilakukan dengan isu masalah yang kompleks, memilih model, menentukan pemodelan berdasarkan input pemodelan, dan objek kebijakan. Pemodelan dipandang sebagai keharusan dalam menghadapi sistem pengaturan kepentingan pemerintah yang sangat kompleks. Keuntungan dan kerugian dari implementasi kebijakan mesti diperhatikan, agar kebijakan tersebut dapat berjalan sesuai dengan norma dan sampai kepada tujuan nya. Oleh karena itu risalah kebijakan dapat merangsang pengajuan kebijakan yang berkualitas, dengan pemodelan kebijakan sebagai alat memberikan rekomendasi yang tepat terhadap pilihan kebijakan. Disamping itu risalah kebijakan yang di tulis oleh para peneliti dan akademisi menjadi alternatif informasi primer bagi pembuat kebijakan. Akhir nya bagi peneliti masa depan, minimal artikel ini dapat menjadi penelitian pendahuluan (preliminary research) agar dapat menguraikan pemodelan kebijakan dalam konteks empiris.

Kata kunci: Risalah kebijakan; Kebijakan publik; Pembuat pebijakan; Pemerintah


This research article presents policy modeling in policy briefs, and determines the recommendation for political policy option. Modeling in policy can recognize changes in a policy structure exogenous towards the policy object. Modeling in policy briefs informs policy decisions that are based on the phenomenon of a particular or overall problem, and the need to accelerate fundamental changes towards more dynamic policy analysis. Meta-theory (the Analysis of theory) is used to review and analyze the policy modeling contained in the policy brief of some relevant literature. This research article describes that policy modeling must be carried out with complex problem issues, selecting models, determining to a model based on modeling inputs, and policy objects. Modeling is seen as a necessity in the face of a very complex system of regulating government interests. The advantages and disadvantages of implementing the policy must be considered, so that the policy in accordance with the norms for reach its objectives. Therefore policy briefs can stimulate a quality policy submissions, with policy modeling as a tool providing appropriate recommendations for policy choices. In addition, the policy briefs are written by researchers and academics become alternative primary information for policy makers. Finally, for future researchers, at least this article can be a preliminary research in order to describe policy modeling in an empirical context.

Keywords: Policy briefs; Public policy; Policymakers; Government

Kata Kunci

Risalah kebijakan; Kebijakan publik; Pembuat pebijakan; Pemerintah

Teks Lengkap:



Action, Research. (2018, October 27). How to Plan, Write and Communicate an Effective Policy Brief: Three Steps to Success. Dari Research to Action:, diakses pada tanggal 05 September 2019.

Armstrong, J. H. (2019). Modeling Effective Local Government Climate Policies That Exceed State Targets. Energy Policy, 132, 15-26. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2019.05.018

Bai, J., & Li, J. (2011). Regional Innovation Efficiency in China: The Role of Local Government. Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice, 13(2), 142-153. doi:10.5172/impp.2011.13.2.142

Barnett, E., & Thomas, J. (2009). Methods for the Synthesis of Qualitative Research: A Critical Review. National Centre for Research Methods Working Papers Series, (EPPI-)Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, London.

Batley, R., & Mcloughlin, C. (2015). The Politics of Public Services: A Service Characteristics Approach. World Development, 74, 275-285. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.05.018

Bérard, C., Cloutier, L. M., & Cassivi, L. (2016). The Effects of Using System Dynamics-Based Decision Support Models: Testing Policy-Makers’ Boundaries in a Complex Situation. Journal of Decision Systems, 26(1), 45-63. doi:10.1080/12460125.2016.1204212

Cinar, E., Trott, P., & Simms, C. (2018). A systematic Review of Barriers to Public Sector Innovation Process. Public Management Review, 20, 1-28. doi:10.1080/14719037.2018.1473477

Cochran, C. L., & Malone, E. F. (2014). Public Policy: Perspectives and Choices. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Conaway, C. L. (2013). The Problem with Briefs, in Brief. Education Finance and Policy, 8(3), 287-299. doi:10.1162/EDFP_a_00096

Coning, C. d., Lurås, H., Schia, N. N., & Ulriksen, S. (2010). Norway’s Whole-of-Government Approach: Challenges for Engagement with Afghanistan and Other Fragile States. Oslow: Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI).

Damuri, Y. R., Aswicahyono, H., & Christian, D. (2018). Innovation Policy in Indonesia. In M. Ambashi, Innovation Policy in ASEAN (pp. 96-127). Jakarta: Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA).

Daniels, C. U., Ustyuzhantseva, O., & Yao, W. (2017). Innovation for Inclusive Development, Public Policy Support and Triple Helix: Perspectives From BRICS. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 9(5), 513-527. doi:10.1080/20421338.2017.1327923

Dolfsma, W., & Seo, D. (2013). Government Policy and Technological Innovation-a Suggested Typology. Technovation, 33(6-7), 173-179. doi:10.1016/j.technovation.2013.03.011

Downes, T., & Killeen, K. M. (2013). Introduction to the Policy Brief Special Issue. Education Finance and Policy, 8(3), 271-274. doi:10.1162/EDFP_e_00094

Dunn, W. N. (2016). Public Policy Analysis (5th ed.). Oxon: Routledge.

Dye, T. R. (2013). Understanding Public Policy (14th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Edler, J., & Fagerberg, J. (2017). Innovation Policy: What, Why, and How. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 33(1), 2-23. doi:10.1093/oxrep/grx001

Estrada, M. A., & Park, D. (2018). The Past, Present and Future of Policy Modeling. Journal of Policy Modeling, 40(1), 1-15. doi:10.1016/j.jpolmod.2018.01.003

Estrada, M. A., & Yap, S. F. (2013). The Origins and Evolution of Policy Modeling. Journal of Policy Modeling, 35(1), 170-182. doi:10.1016/j.jpolmod.2011.12.003

Fowler, L. (2018). Problems, Politics, and Policy Streams in Policy Implementation. Governance, 32(3), 403-420. doi:10.1111/gove.12382

Fuentes, M. A., Tessone, C. J., & Furtado, B. A. (2019). Public Policy Modeling and Applications. Complexity, 1-4. doi:10.1155/2019/4128703

Furtado, B. A., Fuentes, M. A., & Tessone, C. J. (2019). Policy Modeling and Applications: State-of-the-Art and Perspectives. Complexity, 1-11. doi:10.1155/2019/5041681

Hadna, A. H., & Kutanegara, P. M. (2017). Tinjau Ulang Definisi, Parameter, dan Manajemen Data. Yogyakarta: Pusat Studi Kependudukan dan Kebijakan Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Hepburn, C., Pless, J., & Popp, D. (2018). Policy Brief-Encouraging Innovation that Protects Environmental Systems: Five Policy Proposals. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 12(1), 154-169. doi:10.1093/reep/rex024

Hill, M. (2005). The Public Policy Process (4th ed.). Essex: Pearson Education.

Ingrams, A. (2017). Transparency for Results: Testing a Model of Performance Management in Open Government Initiatives. International Journal of Pubic Administration, 00(0), 1-14. doi:10.1080/01900692.2017.1318400

Ittersum, M. K., & Sterk, B. (2015). Computerized models: Tools for Assessing the Future of Complex Systems? In A. J. Jordan, & J. R. Turnpenny, The Tools of Policy Formulation: Actors, Capacities, Venues and Effects (pp. 100-120). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Jagers, S. C., Matti, S., & Nordblom, K. (2019). The Evolution of Public Policy Attitudes: Comparing The Mechanisms of Policy Support Across The Stages of a Policy Cycle. Journal of Public Policy, 1-21. doi:10.1017/S0143814X19000023

Kay, A. (2006). The Dynamics of Public Policy: Theory and Evidence. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Keepnews, D. M. (2016). Developing a Policy Brief. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice, 17(2), 61-65. doi:10.1177/1527154416660670

Klareskov, V., & Nikolov, D. (2007). Eleven Innovations in Governance in the Middle East, North Africa, and Western Balkans: A Synopsis. In D. o. Affairs, Innovations in Governance in the Middle East, North Africa, and Western Balkans: Making Governments Work Better in the Mediterranean Region (pp. 41-52). New York: United Nations.

Kolkman, D. A., Campo, P., Balke-Visser, T., & Gilbert, N. (2016). How to Build Models for Government: Criteria Driving Model Acceptance in Policymaking. Policy Sciences, 49(4), 489-504. doi:10.1007/s11077-016-9250-4

LIPI. (2018, Pebruari 26). Luncurkan Policy Brief, Inilah Isi Rekomendasi LIPI bagi Kebijakan Pemerintah. Dari LIPI:, diakses pada tanggal 02 Nopember 2019.

Loftis, M. W., & Mortensen, P. B. (2017). A Dynamic Linear Modelling Approach to Public Policy Change. Journal of Public Policy, 1-27. doi:10.1017/S0143814X17000186

Minkman, E. (., Buuren, M. W., & Bekkers, V. J. (2018). Policy Transfer Routes: An Evidence-Based Conceptual Model to Explain Policy Adoption. Policy Studies, 39(2), 222-250. doi:10.1080/01442872.2018.1451503

Navarro, F. M. (2016). From Government Innovation to Public Innovation. International Journal of New Technology and Research (IJNTR), 2(6), 4-7.

Overton, W. F., & Müller, U. (2013). Metatheories, Theories, and Concepts in the Study of Development. In R. M. Lerner, M. A. Easterbrooks, & J. Mistry, Handbook of psychology (pp. 19-58). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Patanakul, P., & Pinto, J. K. (2014). Examining the Roles of Government Policy on Innovation. Journal of High Technology Management Research, 25(2), 97-107. doi:10.1016/j.hitech.2014.07.003

Paterson, B. L., Thorne, S. E., Canom, C., & Jillings, C. (2001). Meta-Study of Qualitative Health Research: A Practical Guide to Meta-Analysis and Meta-Synthesis. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publication.

Pennock, A. (2019). The CQ Press Writing Guide for Public Policy. Washington: CQ Press.

Santoso, P. (2010). Modul Pembelajaran Analisis Kebijakan Publik. Yogyakarta: Research Center for Politics and Government (PolGov-UGM).

Shkabatur, J. (2013). Transparency With (Out) Accountability: Open Government in the United States. Yale Law & Policy Review, 31(1), 1-66. Dari, diakses pada tanggal 05 September 2019.

Smith, C. F. (2018). Writing Public Policy: A Practical Guide to Communicating in the Policymaking Process. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stewart-Weeks, M., & Kastelle, T. (2015). Innovation in the Public Sector. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 74(1), 63-72. doi:10.1111/1467-8500.12129

Tohidi, H., & Jabbari, M. M. (2012). Innovation as a Success Key for Organizations. Procedia Technology, 1(1), 560-564. doi:10.1016/j.protcy.2012.02.122

Trojer, L., Rydhagen, B., & Kjellqvistt, T. (2014). Inclusive Innovation Processes-Experiences from Uganda and Tanzania. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 6(4), 425-438. doi:10.1080/20421338.2014.970437

Utomo, T. W. (2017). Merancang Policy Brief: Bahan Ajar Diklatpin Tingkat I. Jakarta: Direktorat Pembinaan Diklat Aparatur LAN RI.

Vries, H. d., Bekkers, V., & Tummers, L. (2015). Innovation in the Public Sector: A Systematics Review and Future Research Agenda. Public Administration, 94(1), 146-166. doi:10.1111/padm.12209

Walker, R. M. (2014). Internal and External Antecedents of Process Innovation: A Review and Extension. Public Manajemen Review, 16(1), 21-44. doi:10.1080/14719037.2013.771698

Young, E., & Quinn, L. (2017). An Essential Guide to Writing Policy Briefs. Berlin: International Centre for Policy Advocacy (ICPA).

Zhao, S. (1991). “Metatheory, Metamethod, Meta-Data Analysis: What, Why, and How?â€. Sociological Perspectives, 34(3), 377-390. doi:10.2307/1389517



  • Saat ini tidak ada refbacks.

Indexing :


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.